Grief is an artwork. Everybody perceives it otherwise, everybody experiences it otherwise and everybody has a distinct approach of dealing with it. That is additionally as a result of a loss doesn’t take the identical type for everybody. If a person dies, his spouse, his daughter, his son, his mother and father, his buddies, everybody suffers a distinct sort of loss by the loss of life of only one man. So, in fact, there may be actually no approach during which any certainly one of them can perceive one other one’s sorrow. All of them know that they’re on the identical boat, though standing on completely different ends and with completely different units of duties. Every has a distinct angle, a distinct perspective with which they see the issues in entrance of them. However, there may be one factor that they’ve in frequent. They’re all transferring forward, with the boat.
‘Manchester By the Sea’ by writer-director Kenneth Lonergan is a portrait of such loss, grief and disappointment, painted within the colors of its multi-layered characters. Probably the greatest movies of its 12 months, additionally it is probably the greatest movies to painting grief in its most lifelike type on the display. Quite a lot of issues made it stand out from different movies of the identical vein, essentially the most outstanding one being its closeness to actuality. Lonergan, in his third movie, took a really delicate and humane strategy for presenting this story to us. And it was as a result of it was instructed this manner that it felt extra impactful and all of the extra surreal.
This movie begins with Lee who’s a janitor engaged on individuals’s problems- fixing their pipes, followers and bathrooms; simply the mundane duties. After which, whereas shovelling the snow, he will get the decision about his brother who has been hospitalized. Earlier than he can attain the hospital, his brother dies and Lee is left to deal with the aftermath. He has to make preparations for the funeral, deal with different monetary stuff, and most significantly, he has to deal with his nephew, Patrick. Lee discovers that his brother had named him because the authorized guardian for Patrick. However, Lee, whom we see as fairly an unattached and a moderately incoherent particular person, has demons from his previous that he hasn’t been capable of bury but.
The despondency of this movie is introduced out by plenty of parts that the filmmakers selected to include in it. Other than the dreariness of the wintry climate, the music influences the temper of the scenes. For essentially the most half, it appears as disconnected because the protagonist of the movie. The withdrawn character of Lee is represented in the best way the scenes are filmed. We see plenty of issues, particularly the essential moments which have the potential of uncooked emotion, from a distance. It’s the indication that the viewers are outsiders to the characters’ conditions and are as alien to them as a stranger who walks by commenting on Lee’s parenting. The music takes over plenty of scenes and infrequently obscures the dialogues. This additional enhances the impact of us watching a household going via one thing unhealthy and that we’re simply outdoors trying in. It’s just like the director is telling us that we will’t perceive others’ ache, we will simply be there and watch them develop via it.
The Totally different Shades of Grief
There’s a lot happening on this movie. There are such a lot of issues that every character goes via and but, because it all performs out in entrance of us, it doesn’t appear to quantity to a lot. ‘Manchester By the Sea’ obtained a substantial amount of acclaim from critics, was nominated for a number of Oscars and virtually swept the nominations in all kinds of award exhibits. But, there are individuals who didn’t discover it worthy of all the eye it was getting. Their logic was that the movie was paced sluggish to the purpose of boring, that there wasn’t something actually happening in it, and that for a movie about grief, it didn’t actually have many feelings. All in all, they didn’t fairly get it.
And that’s precisely what the issue is. These individuals didn’t get this movie. Not that I’m questioning anybody’s skill of understanding movies. Everyone seems to be entitled to their opinion. And it’s okay that they didn’t discover this one to their style. However, right here is the factor, the not getting it half, let’s imagine that Hollywood itself is accountable for it. Each time in a movie we see somebody die, or a funeral, or we see somebody coping with the aftermath, these scenes are most of the time accompanied by a truckload of tears, plenty of hugging, maybe some letters from the deceased and a soliloquy the place the protagonist talks to god or the useless particular person to set free their emotions. By means of all this upheaval and drama, ultimately, we see the character letting go or transferring on from their grief and disappointment.
No such factor occurs in ‘Manchester By the Sea’. Not a single one. And maybe that is why it was arduous for individuals to understand how this movie was portraying its characters as grieving. To clear these factors, the very first thing we have to perceive is that Hollywood not often depicts grief because it occurs in actual life. Folks have gotten used to seeing the characters weeping their coronary heart out at one level or one other, and since it didn’t occur on this movie, it felt unresolved to individuals. The decision of the characters’ scenario gives the viewers with the idea that the character has succeeded in transferring on from their tragedy. However, issues don’t actually occur this manner in actual life. “Shifting on” isn’t actually a part that ends. And this movie presents this actuality in its crystal-clear type.
In actual life, the disappointment doesn’t go away after one second of epiphany, or an indication from the beloved one. In actual life, it stays perpetually and you must take care of it, perpetually. Everybody bears their burden differently and that’s why everybody walks a distinct approach below the load of it. Issues, scenes and dialogues appear mundane and never dramatic sufficient on this movie as a result of that’s precisely how they’re in actual life. The ache of the characters doesn’t finish after the digicam stops rolling. Possibly, it ends for the viewers as a result of the story is over for them as a result of the story has been “concluded”. However, the characters, the individuals who carry such ache in actual life, know that the moon remains to be there even while you’re not trying.
There’s Nothing There
The protagonist of this movie is Lee, a damaged and forlorn character, acted out with perfection by Casey Affleck. The movie begins with Lee being playful and humorous together with his nephew, Patrick. It provides us the picture of how glad and vigorous of he’s. Within the subsequent scene, we see him fixing issues for individuals he doesn’t even appear excited by speaking to. He comes throughout as a chilly, unwelcoming and perpetually drained one that’d moderately sit alone and have a beer in his basement moderately than interacting with individuals. From the primary 5 minutes, we perceive that one thing really horrible will need to have occurred to him that turned him from a ball of sunshine right into a pit of darkness.
The subsequent signal that blares pink about an unhealable wound from the previous is when he will get the information about his brother. After all, he feels unhealthy about it and it should tear at his coronary heart, however he doesn’t present it. In any respect! When the physician exhibits his comfort in a speech that felt rehearsed (contemplating that the physician will need to have needed to deal with such conditions each day), Lee’s response is “Fuck that”. And whereas it may appear impolite, it’s fairly comprehensible. The same factor occurs when Lee and Patrick go to the funeral residence to debate the preparations and the person gives his sympathies, once more in a practised tone, and Patrick feedback on how ridiculous it was.
“What’s with that man, all that critical and sombre act! Doesn’t he realise individuals know he does this every single day?”
The purpose is that individuals like Lee and Patrick (and this behaviour isn’t one thing that’s restricted to simply males) don’t need sympathies as a type of formality. For essentially the most half, providing sympathies IS a formality. Individuals who have suffered the loss really feel linked to one another via it and in that sense, for them, everybody else is an outsider. They don’t discuss it to others or don’t really feel like opening as much as others as a result of they imagine that ‘outsiders’ won’t perceive what they’re going via. To an extent, that is true. The outsiders speak extra and decide additional. Lee is aware of this very nicely as a result of he needed to face the judgement of the entire city. The hearth that destroyed every part for him is one thing that he feels accountable for. He needs to be punished for that and thinks that he deserves the hatred that he receives from Randi. Nonetheless, he can’t deal with the hatred that he will get from different individuals within the city. Though it isn’t proven within the movie, we will perceive how arduous life will need to have been for Lee after the hearth. Although he had a loving brother, life for him was over in Manchester. And it nonetheless is.
After his brother’s loss of life, Lee needed to keep on the town for taking good care of Patrick and all different issues. His job in Boston doesn’t begin till July and within the meantime, he tries to search out jobs in Manchester. However he doesn’t get any. Lee hasn’t forgiven himself, however neither has the city. He is aware of this, and that is why he can’t keep there. He can’t overlook what occurred, and the entire city is a continuing reminder of that. They aren’t actually serving to him in transferring on.
Although his mistake was a fairly frequent one and if it hadn’t had such a monstrous impression in his life, he would have in all probability tossed it off on jokes with out pondering twice about it. However, it did impression his life within the worst potential approach and for this, he can by no means forgive himself. He needs to deal with Patrick. He should need to be there for his nephew. They solely have one another now. However, contemplating the colossal blunder that he had made up to now, he couldn’t take it upon himself to be the guardian for Patrick and make one other blunder. He is aware of this from the beginning, and whereas he has nearly made up his thoughts about how every part will work, he appears to be contemplating the thought of being there for Patrick. However then, one other occasion reminds him of the previous and he realises that he’d moderately steer clear of his nephew. Once more, it was a fairly frequent mistake to make. Getting distracted whereas cooking one thing, being on a name, or watching TV, or dozing off, and burning the meals within the course of. However, for Lee, it’s the reminder of one other small mistake he made that resulted within the loss of life of his kids. At that second, he is aware of how it’ll be. That’s the second that makes it final- turning over Patrick’s guardianship to George.
One may suppose why Lee hasn’t moved on from his mistake. In every other movie, the protagonist would’ve taken this chance to be the dad or mum that they couldn’t be for their very own kids. They’d have discovered consolation, and maybe closure, on this and moved on. However, “transferring on” is overrated. The lack of one’s kids isn’t one thing that may be moved on from. As Randi mentioned, her coronary heart was damaged and it’ll keep damaged. There is no such thing as a mending of the wound that was stricken on her by her kids’s loss of life. And that goes for Lee, too. One may argue that Randi is the dwelling, respiratory and fairly the closest instance for Lee to search out consolation in another person and get previous the grief that haunts him. After the tragedy, her life didn’t cease. She has a husband and a baby now, and life goes on. Why can’t Lee do that? Why doesn’t he strive to connect with individuals? Why does he fend off advances which might be fairly repetitively made on him? If he tried to open up extra, he, too, may have a household. Why does he flatly decline anybody who tries to strategy him?
It’s because, as I mentioned earlier than, his grief is completely different from Randi’s. Sure, it was each of them who misplaced their very own kids in that fireside. Nonetheless, Randi didn’t really feel accountable for it. She wasn’t the one who forgot to place up the display and went away to purchase extra beer for herself. She wasn’t the one who was drunk at two within the morning and she or he wasn’t the one who held on to the groceries whereas watching her home burn in entrance of her eyes. She has to reside with the sorrow, however not with the disgrace. It’s this disgrace, this guilt for being accountable for the loss of life of his kids that weighs Lee down.
When the police query him about what might need occurred, he tells them every part in a tone that means that he’s confessing to a criminal offense. He admits that it was him who lit the hearth that burnt his home to the bottom and one can see in his eyes that he’s able to be punished for it. So, when the cops inform him to go (the truth is, they provide him a experience residence!), he’s taken abruptly. After they inform him that they gained’t “crucify” him for making a easy mistake, he’s baffled. As a result of he got here ready, to be arrested and thrown into jail. Maybe, crucifying him would have introduced some consolation to his soul as a result of he would have been punished for killing his kids. So, when he realises that no such factor will occur, he decides to do it himself. He grabs a gun from a cop and shoots himself within the head. Solely, he doesn’t realise the protection was on. When he tries to rectify that mistake, he’s held down and brought again residence. He doesn’t need to kill himself as a result of he can’t reside with the ache, he needs to kill himself as a result of he can’t reside with the guilt. He doesn’t discover himself deserving of dwelling after being accountable for burning his kids alive.
There are some issues that you simply by no means come again from. Being responsible of your kids’s loss of life is a type of issues.It’s not that Lee can’t transfer on like Randi. If he tries then he absolutely can. However, he doesn’t need to. His reducing off from the world, this self-imposed loneliness is his punishment. If he permits himself to attach with individuals and discover love once more, he would open the door for happiness in his life. And after what he did to his kids, he doesn’t really feel deserving of happiness. How can he be glad with out them? (That is fairly a typical emotion that individuals really feel after they endure a loss.) He admits to Patrick that he “can’t beat it.” And he doesn’t even look he’s attempting to. All of it’s because he doesn’t need to be glad anymore.
If it hadn’t been his fault, maybe his marriage would have survived. He and Randi would have discovered consolation in each other within the wake of the tragedy that struck them. Maybe, via her assist, he would have discovered the desire to maneuver on. However, it didn’t occur that approach. He blames himself for it, and so does Randi. And that is why there was no hope for his or her marriage. No hope for him. He can’t even deliver himself to speak to her or look her within the eye. He feels torn by seeing her with another person and watching her construct a household with a person aside from himself, however in his coronary heart, he feels that she deserves this household, and with out him. He doesn’t maintain any grudge in opposition to her for the horrible issues she mentioned to her, issues for which she ought to burn in hell, as a result of he is aware of that he deserves that hatred. That he’s the one who needs to be burning in hell.
His self-imposed jail doesn’t enable him to really feel any happiness. Years of conditioning has made him withdrawn and emotionless. That is the ache that also haunts him, and it’s higher than something that can are available in his life. So, when he hears about his brother’s loss of life, he doesn’t present it as a lot as was “anticipated” of him. He doesn’t appear excited by individuals’s sympathies and appears extra targeted on the price of the funeral preparations, the boat’s scenario and the fund for Patrick’s guardianship.
One may marvel why he didn’t (attempt to) kill himself? He tried it within the police station and with all this guilt nonetheless lingering on his soul, and him dwelling alone in Boston, how has he not killed himself, but? Should you’re asking this query, too, then, critically individuals, what a shitty query to ask. And to clear it additional, his brother was taking care of him. When Lee was leaving for Boston, Joe clearly tells him that he’ll name the cops, if he doesn’t hear from him by 9. He visits Lee’s new place and will get furnishings for him even when Lee doesn’t need it. There are small issues that Joe does for him, it’s these gestures and his present of authority on Lee that makes Lee pull via every single day. It’s his brother who retains him alive. Typically, that is simply what an individual wants to hold on to life. Somebody who believes in them, unconditionally.
Possibly You Don’t Need That Picture in Your Reminiscence
One other expression of grief that we see on this movie is Patrick’s loss. We see that he has an in depth relationship together with his father, particularly as a result of his mom left him when he was nonetheless a boy. He grows as much as be a assured and confident teenager. He’s within the hockey staff and the basketball staff, he’s the a part of a band, appears fairly standard in class and is juggling two girlfriends. He’s, in most features, a traditional teenager. He takes the loss of life of his father with a poised manner and even when he’s nonetheless a child, he is aware of that he has to stand up the accountability for himself. He may have let Lee deal with every part and simply agreed with every part that his uncle needed to do. However, he doesn’t do it. As a result of, to begin with, Lee has been distant from them for fairly a while. And secondly, he hasn’t been raised that approach. He questions each determination that Lee makes and needs a say in each matter. He doesn’t enable himself to interrupt down in entrance of anybody, which is one thing that in all probability runs in his household. In actual fact, the couple of occasions that he does cry, it’s in entrance of Lee.
Patrick holds his grounds about how he needs issues. When Lee says that they may transfer to Boston, he refuses, laying down the logic of how he has a life in Manchester whereas Lee has nothing in Boston. When Lee needs to promote the boat, Patrick flatly refuses. He comes up with concepts to maintain the boat operating, even when Lee counters his ideas. He lashes out at Lee for not permitting him to speak to his mom. He is aware of about his mom’s previous issues, however he needs to present her an opportunity. He needs himself to have an opportunity along with her. As soon as he meets her for lunch after which receives a mail from her husband, he realises that there isn’t a hope for them. However, no less than, he explored the chance.
It looks as if Patrick is dealing with every part fairly nicely. Possibly it was as a result of he knew that his father had a illness that will finally kill him, that Patrick had ready himself for this. Nonetheless, no quantity of preparation can practice you to deal with the issues once they really occur. Additionally, Lee is the one who’s guiding him via every part, so nothing is sugar-coated for him. Every little thing is instructed to him as it’s, unfiltered and in exact actuality. When he asks Lee about what his father appears to be like like, Lee says, “he appears to be like like he’s useless”. One may say that Lee is dealing with this example insensitively. However, contemplating every part that Lee has been via, he is aware of that no quantity of sensitivity can change Patrick’s scenario. He’s being simple with Patrick as a result of he needs to organize him for all times and seems, Patrick needs that too.
Patrick’s composure all through the movie permits for just a few mild moments of humour within the movie. When he hears about his father being frozen till the bottom thaws to bury him, he expresses his discomfort with it. Lee too agrees that he doesn’t prefer it, however they will’t combat the climate and bringing heavy equipment within the grounds shouldn’t be allowed. As they stroll about, discussing it, Lee forgets the place he parked the automobile. After they lastly get within the automobile, it’s so chilly in there that Patrick begins showering his sarcastic feedback on Lee. Considered one of which is “Why don’t we preserve my dad in right here for the following three months. It’ll save us a fortune.” This would appear a callous factor if anybody else mentioned it about his father, however coming from Patrick, it feels fairly humorous. Particularly, contemplating how Lee had been happening and on about preparations and prices and cash and every part else.
His love life and administration of two girlfriends concurrently gives a reprieve in an in any other case gloomy setting. He doesn’t maintain again his humour and sarcasm with Lee, the truth is, it’s extra pronounced of their conversations. The miscommunication between them additionally gives for some mild moments, just like the time when they’re outdoors the hospital and Patrick says “let’s go”. To which Lee thinks that he doesn’t need to go inside and drives away whereas Patrick opens the door to step out. There are mild moments unfold all through the movie to steadiness the scales between distress and the absurdity of their conditions. One other factor that added authenticity to it was the best way the dialogues have been taking part in out. There have been a pair occasions when the conversations overlapped. When two or three characters talked concurrently and made it obscure what any of them was saying. Don’t inform me individuals round you don’t do this. Don’t inform me that everybody you understand, together with you, is civil sufficient let others end earlier than they begin speaking!
Anyway, to the outsiders, it will seem like Patrick is doing fairly nicely. That he’s performing strongly within the face of atrocity, that he’s not permitting the grief to affect him. Or no less than, that’s what it appears to be like like. However grief is a stronger drive than it. It lingers within the shadows, and like destiny, strikes after we least count on it. The right instance for that is when Patrick has a panic assault after he sees the frozen meals within the fridge. Just some minutes in the past, he was making jokes on it, and now, the sight of frozen rooster gave him a panic assault, portrayed in a nerve-wracking efficiency by Lucas Hedges.
Patrick couldn’t take care of the considered his father being in a freezer for therefore lengthy and he breaks down on the most inopportune of occasions. And that is how it’s in actual life too. Folks, although not all, take care of the rapid grief in a really tactical approach. They deal with the funerals and the preparations and insurance policies they should launch and the papers they should signal. They deal with every part as a result of nobody else will do it for them. And maybe, it’s this indulgence in actions that get them via the emotional upheaval. Nonetheless, when every part is finished with and everybody has expressed their condolences and left when individuals end up alone once more, it’s then that the fact dawns on them. It may very well be listening to a tune, or watching a film, mowing the garden or studying a guide or, as in Patrick’s case, publicity to frozen meals, that triggers a sure thought and the loss weighs heavy on them. It’s this realism that set the tone of ‘Manchester By the Sea’.
My Coronary heart Was Damaged and It Will Keep Damaged
Whereas Lee and Patrick have been the centres of the drama unfolding in entrance of us, there was one other character that represented one of many manifestations of grief. Once I noticed Michelle Williams on the posters and her title in every single place as one of many important forged members of the movie, I assumed that she would have greater than fifteen minutes of mixed screen-time in the entire movie. I used to be a bit disenchanted, to be trustworthy, contemplating the advantageous actress that she is and questioning if the director may have used her abilities higher by extending her position within the movie.
Nonetheless, Williams didn’t appear affected by it and for on a regular basis that she bought on the display, I couldn’t take my eyes off of her. Even when she wasn’t saying something, her face and her eyes expressed all of the lament and disappointment inside Randi. The scene the place she lastly will get to speak to Lee was the spotlight of the entire movie. That scene stole the present for me. The depth of that scene and the profundity with which it was portrayed by Williams and Affleck can’t be put into phrases. There was a lot warmth there, so many feelings abruptly. There was grieving, there was remorse, there was apologizing and forgiveness. In a single scene, the director confirmed us the 2 approach that individuals transform after they’ve gone via one thing really harrowing. Randi represented those who take time however achieve crossing over to the opposite aspect of the anguish. She represented the fluidity that point permits and the understanding it creates for the heartaches of different individuals. She confirmed that there are some issues that you must reside with and a few issues that you must let go of. She determined to reside with the truth that her kids have been gone and that there’s nothing that may be performed about it.
Randi discovered power, in time, and happiness once more. She acknowledged the truth that part of her was damaged past restore and that she must reside with that. In time, she additionally discovered the power to not solely forgive Lee but additionally to ask forgiveness from him in regards to the issues she mentioned to her. Clearly, her perspective would’ve made life much more depressing for Lee, and whereas she wasn’t in her senses to grasp it on the time, she did realise it in a while. It will need to have been a protracted, and excessive, highway for her from flinching at Lee’s contact to going through him and apologizing. She confirmed true concern for Lee and supplied to assist him by mending the bridge between them. Possibly, she needed closure for herself, too. Lee was an unresolved factor from her previous and within the means of transferring on, she wanted to have the ability to get previous her despise for him. What she didn’t realise was that Lee hadn’t gotten previous despising himself.
The Echoes and Murmurs
The storytelling in ‘Manchester By the Sea’ was compelling and interesting. Each time the director needed to emphasise on a sure scene or dialogue, he would add one other layer to it. This referred to as for lots of issues echoing all through the movie. For instance, the scene the place Patrick had the panic assault was adopted by, or moderately, was entwined with the scene of Lee transferring to Boston. When Patrick tells Lee that he’s advantageous and that Lee ought to depart him alone, Lee flatly refuses and sits by his bedside. He is aware of that although Patrick looks like he needs to be left alone, it isn’t what he wants in the intervening time. Within the scene parallel to it, we see Joe doing the identical for Lee. Each these scenes emphasize the presence of a dominating determine in everybody’s life, particularly in troubled occasions. Somebody who is aware of precisely what’s to be performed even when the (grieving) particular person doesn’t understand it.
Equally, when Lee and Randi speak on the road and Randi says that his coronary heart is damaged, it echoes a minute or two later. Lee will get in a bar combat and when George takes him residence and his spouse fixes him up, she asks whether or not they need to take him to a hospital. To this, George replies “I don’t suppose so. Nothing’s damaged.”
Proper within the first scene, we see Lee taking part in a sport with younger Patrick the place he asks him who the perfect man can be to assist him survive if he ever bought stranded on an island. He needs Patrick to select him, however the boy picks his father. Later, when Patrick is definitely stranded, Lee doesn’t need to be picked for him. Up to now, they seem shut and pleasant, however, within the current, they’ve hassle speaking with one another. There have been small particulars like this that magnified the impression of sure factors within the movie.
Some of the frequent complaints that I heard about ‘Manchester By the Sea’ was that there was no character development in it. Lee was precisely as he had been at first of the movie, unhappy and alone. He didn’t forgive himself, he didn’t make peace with Randi, he didn’t attempt to join with anybody, he didn’t keep within the city. Every little thing stayed the identical for him. To these individuals, I ask to look intently. Sure, there was no grand gesture that modified him, neither was there a powerful character development. However, actually, who modifications so quick? If you understand individuals who present sudden character modifications, then it’s good to re-evaluate the sort of individuals round you.
As I mentioned earlier than, there are some issues that you simply simply can’t return from. Randi may suppose that Lee simply has a damaged coronary heart and that’s why she thinks it may be fastened. However, for Lee, there may be nothing there, so what’s there to repair, then? He is aware of himself, he is aware of his actuality, and he doesn’t delude himself with any faux guarantees of life getting higher for him. And that is precisely what he means when he tells Patrick that he can’t beat it.
There may be, nonetheless, a twinkle of enchancment that we see in him earlier than the credit begin to roll. There are small issues, a gesture that he makes, a small pause within the dialog, a smile that doesn’t lengthen for greater than a second, a easy act of letting the ball go, that tells in regards to the modifications in him.
At first, he lives in a basement. When he learns about him being the guardian for Patrick, he doesn’t settle for it. He needs to promote the boat and refuses to speak to a girl simply so Patrick can have time alone along with her daughter. All of this stuff change by the top. He comes up with a technique to preserve the boat operating as a result of that’s what Patrick needs. He wanders the streets in order that Patrick and his girlfriend can have some alone time with out her mom hovering round. He nonetheless doesn’t settle for the accountability of being a guardian, however he opens up extra to him. He decides to purchase an residence with a spare room so Patrick can come to go to someday, which means that he’s lastly opening as much as somebody.
We don’t know the way he’ll finally transform. If he’ll ever really discover his approach again to being the best way he was earlier than if he’ll marry and have a household once more. There is no such thing as a flash-forward to 10 years or so, telling how his story shapes up. However, we do see him taking small steps. The final scene is him and Patrick fishing on the boat. For a person who needed to be left alone on a regular basis, that is fairly a exceptional enchancment. There may not be a closing determination on Lee’s destiny, however there may be hope for him. And typically, that’s all that one wants.
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